Here is a basic introduction to the principles of industrial design and their application in all phases of planning and production. It is intended to offer experienced instruction, based on scientific knowledge, in place of the intuitive approach to the field often encountered in engineering practice and education. The book presents basic principles and constitutes an exposition of these fundamental axioms and their application. The emphasis is on identifying problems in a clear, scientific manner, so that the correct solution may be arrived at regardless of the mathematical treatment involved. In particular, the importance of conceptualizing design approaches--a uniquely human, intellectual skill--is highlighted, since too often educators and engineers try to limit this process to computer techniques. Case studies are extensively presented to illustrate the significance as well as the use of the axioms in solving real problems. The work is based on extensive experience at M.I.T's Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, where axiomatics is a major program. The goal of the program is to bring a scientific approach to the decision-making process related to manufacturing--an approach that facilitates rational design of processes and products, as well as the optimization of manufacturing systems.